Food Technology Revision and Prepartion

Revision Websites

https://www.foodafactoflife.org.uk/14-16-years/ 

https://senecalearning.com/en-GB/ link to AQA GCSE FPN - there is a link from Google Classroom.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GVVH2JAatQQ&list=PL3dlLzA2y58ipAZdoefAl9OlMaeCF8wgX 

https://www.youtube.com/@FunKitchenCookeryforSchools 

Textbooks

https://collins.co.uk/products/9780008535032 

Knowledge Organisers for Food Preparation & Nutrition can be found HERE

How to revise in GCSE FPN

 

5 MINUTE REVISION ACTIVITIES

20 MINUTE REVISION ACTIVITIES

30 MINUTE REVISION ACTIVITIES

60 MINUTE REVISION ACTIVITIES

  • Mini quizzing using knowledge organiser. 

  • 20 multiple choice questions from past papers

  • Quizizz – can search for a quiz via topic/exam board

  • Kerboodle quizzes - via food a fact of life website

  • Quizzing from s-cool - https://www.s-cool.co.uk/gcse/food-technology 

  • Add to FLASH CARDS

  • HIGHLIGHT information from class book

  • Answer a question from PREVIOUS EXAM PAPER.

  • Watch a video on youtube or listen to a podcast (ensure they are relevant)

  • Pair up with someone and discuss a exam question, 

  • Create a MIND MAP from a textbook, use colour pens and highlight to bring out key information. Use pictures where possible.

  • Write key facts or notes on flashcards or post it notes and stick around the house

  • Record yourself speaking your notes and listen back

  • Use resources from GOOGLE CLASSROOM to review activities in class.

  • Complete PREVIOUS EXAM PAPER.

  • Recopy notes in different colours

 

Food Preparation and Nutrition

  • 1 written paper

  • 1 hour 45 minutes

  • 100 marks

  • 50% of GCSE

  • 2 sections within the written paper

    • Section A = multiple choice questions (20 marks)

    • Section B =five questions each with a number of sub questions (80 marks)

Subject Content

Food preparation skills – these are intended to be integrated into the five sections:

  1. Food, nutrition and health

  2. Food science

  3. Food safety

  4. Food choice

  5. Food provenance

 

You are assessed on the theoretical knowledge of food preparation and nutrition from sections 1 to 5 above.

 

Content

Students must know and understand

Suggested applications and food preparation skills

1. Food Nutrition and Health

Macronutrients

Protein

  • low and high biological value proteins 

  • protein complementation 

  • protein alternatives eg textured vegetable protein (TVP), soya, mycoprotein and tofu. 

  • the functions 

  • main sources 

  • effects of deficiency and excess 

  • related dietary reference values. 

  • Modify recipes for vegetarian diets. 

  • Knife skills – meat, fish or their alternatives (S2). 

  • How acids denature and coagulate protein (S9). 

  • Make a bolognese sauce using meat or a meat alternative such as soya (S8). 

Fats 

  • saturated fats 

  • unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated). 

  • the functions 

  • main sources 

  • effects of deficiency and excess 

  • related dietary reference values. 

  • Make a pastry, shape and finish a pastry (S10). 

  • Use food processor to make pastry (S5). 

  • Adapt methods of cooking to reduce fat, eg grilling instead of frying, baking instead of roasting (S4). 

  • Modify a recipe to reduce total fat. 

Carbohydrates 

  • starch (polysaccharides) 

  • sugars (monosaccharides/ disaccharides) 

  • dietary fibre. 

  • the functions 

  • main sources 

  • effects of deficiency and excess 

  • related dietary reference values. 

  • Use starch to set a mixture (S12). 

  • Demonstrate proving to make bread rolls using high fibre our (S10). 

  • Modify a recipe to increase fibre. 

Micronutrients 

Vitamins 

  • Fat soluble 

  • vitamin A 

  • vitamin D 

  • vitamin E 

  • vitamin K. 

  • the functions 

  • main sources 

  • effects of deficiency and excess 

  • related dietary reference values. 

  • Knife skills – fillet and slice fish and/or fruits and vegetables (S2). 

  • Water soluble 

  • B group – B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), folic acid, B12 

  • vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 

  • loss of water soluble vitamins when cooking (B group and Vitamin C). 

  • the functions 

  • main sources 

  • effects of deficiency and excess 

  • related dietary reference values 

  • how preparation and cooking affects the nutritional properties of food. 

Cooking methods – water based using the hob – steaming, boiling, simmering and poaching (S6). 

Knife skills – cut fruit and vegetables into even size pieces (ie batons, julienne) (S2). 

Antioxidant functions of vitamins 

  • vitamin A 

  • vitamin C 

  • vitamin E. 

The role of antioxidants in protecting body cells from damage. 

Preparing fruit and vegetables eg making different salads inclusive of vegetables, nuts or eggs which contain antioxidant vitamins (S2/S3). 

Minerals 

  • calcium 

  • iron 

  • sodium (salt) 

  • fluoride 

  • iodine 

  • phosphorus. 

  • the functions 

  • main sources 

  • effects of deficiency and excess 

  • related dietary reference values. 

Preparing vegetables, meats or alternatives which are high in iron (S2). 

Preparing dairy foods, which are high in calcium, for example when making a white sauce (S8). 

Reducing the salt in recipes eg when tasting and seasoning, replace salt with herbs and spices. 

Water 

The importance of hydration and the functions of water in the diet. 

  • functions of water to eliminate waste from the body, cooling and for digestion 

  • how water is lost from the body 

  • how much water/ fluid is needed each day 

  • occasions when extra fluids are needed. 

Preparing fruit and vegetables, for example in soup making – scissor snip, crush, grate, peel. Make juices and smoothies (S3). 

 

Nutritional needs and health 

Making informed choices for a varied and balanced diet 

  • the current guidelines for a healthy diet 

  • portion size and costing when meal planning 

  • how peoples’ nutritional needs change and how to plan a balanced diet for different life stages 

  • how to plan a balanced meal for specific dietary groups 

  • how to maintain a healthy body weight throughout life. 

  • the current guidelines for a healthy diet eg eatwell plate 

  • nutritional needs for the following life stages: young children, teenagers, adults and the elderly 

  • how to plan a balanced meal for specific dietary groups: vegetarian and vegan, coeliac, lactose intolerant and high fibre diets. 

Consideration of the nutritional needs and food choices when selecting recipes, including when making decisions about the ingredients, processes, cooking methods and portion sizes. 

To plan, prepare, cook, modify, and create recipes to meet different dietary groups and life stages. 

Energy needs 

  • the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity level (PAL) and their importance in determining energy requirements 

  • the recommended percentage of energy intake provided by protein, fat and carbohydrates (starch and sugar). 

  • factors which affect the BMR, such as age, gender and PAL. Their importance in achieving energy balance 

  • the percentage of recommended energy sources from nutrients: 

  • protein15% 

  • fat 35% or less 

  • carbohydrate 50% (of which 45% from starches, lactose in milk and fruit sugars and a maximum of 5% from free sugars). 

General practical skills (S1). 

Demonstrate portion sizes according to life stage/PAL level. 

How to carry out nutritional analysis 

How to plan and modify recipes, meals and diets to re ect the nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet. 

  • how to use current nutritional information and data eg food tables, nutritional analysis software to calculate energy and nutritional value. 

Plan, make and modify dishes calculating energy and nutritional values. 

Diet, nutrition and health 

  • the relationship between diet, nutrition and health 

  • the major diet related health risks. 

  • how diet can affect health and how nutritional needs change in relation to: 

  • obesity 

  • cardiovascular health (coronary heart disease (CHD) and high blood pressure) 

  • bone health (rickets and osteoporosis) 

  • dental health 

  • iron deficiency anaemia 

  • Type 2 diabetes. 

Select and adjust cooking process to match the recipe and take account of dietary group eg grill meat rather than fry to reduce the fat content as a high saturated fat intake is a risk factor for CHD (S1). 

 

Content

Students must know and understand

Suggested applications and food preparation skills

2. Food science 

Cooking of food and heat transfer 

Why food is cooked and how heat is transferred to food 

  • the reasons why food is cooked 

  • the different methods of heat transfer. 

  • food is cooked to: 

  • make food safe to eat 

  • develop flavours 

  • improve texture 

  • improve shelf life 

  • give variety in the diet 

  • how preparation and cooking affect the appearance, colour, flavour, texture, smell and overall palatability of food 

  • how heat is transferred to food through: conduction • convection • radiation. 

For sauce making: 

  • how conduction and convection work to cook a sauce and the need for agitation (S6) 

  • how radiation works using the grill for a range of foods such as vegetables, meat, fish or alternatives such as halloumi, seeds and nuts, to char, toast and grill (S4). 

Selecting appropriate cooking methods 

Selection of appropriate preparation, cooking methods and times to achieve desired characteristics. 

  • how the selection of appropriate preparation and cooking methods can conserve or modify nutritive value or improve palatability: 

  • water based: steaming, boiling, simmering, blanching, poaching, braising 

  • dry methods: baking, roasting, grilling, dry frying 

  • fat based: shallow frying, stir fry 

  • how preparation and cooking affect the appearance, colour, flavour, texture, smell and overall palatability of food eg 

  • the use of marinades to denature protein. 

Using the oven for baking, roasting, braising, casseroles and/or tagines (S4). 

Dry heat and fat based methods using the hob; dry frying, shallow frying and stir frying (S6). 

Use of the microwave oven (S5). 

Water, dry heat and fat based cooking methods using the hob – to conserve nutritive value eg steaming, stir frying (S6). 

General practical skills – judge and modify sensory properties – awareness of the effect of preparation and cooking on the sensory characteristics 

  • of food – appearance, colour, flavour, texture, taste and season adding herbs, spices etc. Use browning and glazing to change texture and flavour. Improve aesthetic qualities 

  • of foods by garnishing and decorating (S1). 

The use of marinades to tenderise and flavour meats and alternatives (S9). 

The boiling of vegetables to alter texture (S6). 

 

Functional and chemical properties of food 

Proteins 

   
  • protein denaturation 

  • protein coagulation 

  • gluten formation 

  • foam formation. 

  • the scientific principles underlying these processes when preparing and cooking food 

  • the working characteristics, functional and chemical properties of proteins. 

Demonstrate how acids denature protein and marinades add flavour and moisture when preparing vegetables, meat, fish and alternatives (S9). 

Setting of egg mixtures eg in quiche (S12). 

Gluten formation – pasta making using a pasta machine, bread making using a bread machine (S5 and S10). 

The use of marinades to tenderise and flavour meats and alternatives (S9). 

Whisking eggs to produce a gas-in-liquid foam eg whisked sponge. 

Carbohydrates 

  • gelatinisation 

  • dextrinisation 

  • caramelisation 

  • the scientific principles underlying these processes when preparing and cooking food 

  • the working characteristics, functional and chemical properties of carbohydrates. 


 

Make a blended white sauce showing starch gelatinisation such as either a roux or all-in-one blended sauce, infused sauce, velouté or béchamel to demonstrate how liquid/starch ratios affect viscosity (S8). 

Demonstrate how conduction and convection work to cook the sauce and the need for agitation. 

Caramelisation of vegetables (S6). 

Dextrinisation eg browning of bread when baking (S4). 

Fats and oils 

  • shortening 

  • aeration 

  • plasticity 

  • emulsification. 

  • the scientific principles underlying these processes when preparing and cooking food 

  • the working characteristics, functional and chemical properties of fats and oils. 

Use of fats/oils to demonstrate these processes. 

Shortening and plasticity, eg pastry making (S10). 

Aeration eg using the creaming method with a food mixer for a cake (S1, S4, S5 and S11). 

Make an emulsion sauce such as a salad dressing, mayonnaise or hollandaise (S8). 

Fruit and Vegetables 

  • enzymic browning

  • oxidation. 

  • the scientific principles underlying these processes when preparing and cooking food. 

When preparing fresh fruits such as apples and pears, preventing enzymic browning by using lemon juice (S2) and (S3). 

Oxidation eg preventing water soluble vitamin loss when preparing and cooking vegetables (S3) and (S6). 

Raising agents 

  • chemical (baking powder, bicarbonate of soda, self- raising ours which produce carbon dioxide) 

  • mechanical (whisking, beating, folding, sieving, creaming and rubbing in – all incorporate air into the mixture) 

  • steam is produced when the water in any moist mixture reaches boiling point 

  • biological (yeast). 

  • the scientific principles underlying these processes when preparing and cooking food 

  • the working characteristics, functional and chemical properties of raising agents. 

Using chemical raising agents such as self-raising our and baking powder (S11). 

Use steam in a mixture to raise choux pastry or batter. 

Use egg as a raising agent to: 

  • create a gas-in-liquid foam 

  • whisk egg whites 

  • whisking savoury roulade

 Yeast in bread making. 

 

Content

Students must know and understand

Suggested applications and food preparation skills

3. Food safety 

Food spoilage and contamination 

Microorganisms and enzymes 

  • the growth conditions
    for microorganisms and enzymes and the control of food spoilage 

  • bacteria, yeasts and moulds are microorganisms 

  • high risk foods 

  • enzymes are biological catalysts usually made from protein. 

  • growth conditions for microorganisms: role of temperature, moisture, food and time 

  • control of microorganism growth: temperature control, pH, water availability 

  • high risk foods: ready to eat moist foods, usually high in protein that easily support the growth of pathogenic bacteria and do not require any further heat treatment or cooking 

  • control of enzymic action: blanching of vegetables before freezing, use of acids to prevent enzymic browning. 

Bread making (S4 and S10). 

Water based methods using the hob – blanching of vegetables to demonstrate the destruction of enzymes in foods (S6). 

Oxidation – eg preventing water soluble vitamin loss when preparing and cooking vegetables (S3, S6 and S2) 

The signs of food spoilage 

  • enzymic action 

  • mould growth 

  • yeast action. 

  • enzymic action: ripening of bananas, browning of some fruits 

  • mould growth: eg on bread and cheese. Recognise the signs of mould growth on foods 

  • yeast action on fruits eg grapes, strawberries and tomatoes. 

Preparing fruit and vegetables – mash, shred, scoop, segment, juice and blanch fruits and vegetables to control enzymic browning (S3). 

Preparing fruit and vegetables which sustain yeast and mould growth, wash and chill to prevent their growth. Demonstrate the following techniques: de- seed, de-skin (for example, tomatoes). 

Microorganisms in food production 

The use of microorganisms in food production. 

  • moulds in the production of blue cheese 

  • yeasts to raise bread 

  • bacteria in yoghurt and cheese production. 

Make a bread dough, finish and shape a bread dough for use in at breads, pizza or calzone (S4 and S10). 

Bacterial contamination 

  • the different sources of bacterial contamination 

  • the main types of bacteria which cause food poisoning 

  • the main sources and methods of control of different food poisoning bacteria types 

  • the general symptoms of food poisoning. 

Contamination from: 

  • other contaminated foods including the following raw foods: meat, poultry, eggs, seafood and vegetables 

  • work surfaces and equipment 

  • the people cooking 

  • pests 

  • waste food and rubbish 

  • campylobacter 

  • e-coli 

  • salmonella 

  • listeria 

  • staphylococcus aureus. 

cross contamination and handling high risk foods correctly (S7). 

General practical skills – test for readiness. Use a temperature probe, knife/ skewer, finger or ‘poke’ test, ‘bite’, visual colour check or sound to establish whether an ingredient or recipe is ready, to ensure the food is safe to eat (S1). 

Principles of food safety 

Note: All temperatures and guidance in accordance with current Food Standards Agency (FSA) guidelines.

Buying and storing food 

The food safety principles when To apply food safety
buying and storing food. 

  • temperature control: 

  • freezing: -18°C 

  • chilling: 0 to below 5°C 

  • danger zone: 5 to 63°C 

  • cooking: 75°C 

  • reheating: 75°C 

  • ambient storage 

  • temperature danger zone 

  • correct use of domestic fridges and freezers 

  • date marks 

  • 'best before' and 'use by' dates 

  • covering foods. 

To apply food safety
buying and storing food. considerations when preparing, storing and cooking. 

Preparing, cooking and serving food 

The food safety principles when preparing, cooking and serving food. 

  • personal hygiene 

  • clean work surfaces 

  • separate raw and cooked foods and use of separate utensils 

  • correct cooking times 

  • appropriate temperature control including: defrosting and reheating 

  • appropriate care with high risk foods 

  • correct use of food temperature probes. 

Knife skills: preventing cross- contamination (S2). 

Washing and drying vegetables during preparation to prevent food poisoning (S3). 

Using a blender to make
fruit coulis as a decoration, focusing on good hygienic practice, washing and drying fruit and ensuring cleanliness of equipment (S5). 

Preparing, combining and shaping, for example wet mixtures (such as falafels, fish cakes or meatballs) whilst demonstrating technical skills of preventing 

 

Content

Students must know and understand

Suggested applications and food preparation skills

4. Food choice 

Factors affecting food choice 

Factors which influence food choice 

To know and understand factors which may influence food choice. 

the following factors in relation to food choice: 

  • physical activity level (PAL) 

  • celebration/occasion 

  • cost of food 

  • preferences 

  • enjoyment 

  • food availability 

  • healthy eating 

  • income 

  • lifestyles 

  • seasonality 

  • time of day 

  • time available to prepare/ cook. 

Students must be able to cost recipes and make modifications. 

When selecting recipes students could explain and justify their reasons for choice. 

When preparing recipes and meals consider lifestyle, consumer choice etc. 

When planning recipes and dishes carry out costing of the dishes. 

Food choices 

Food choice related to religion, culture, ethical and moral beliefs and medical conditions. 

  • food choice linked to
    the following religions
    and cultures: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Rastafarianism and Sikhism 

  • food choice linked to the following ethical and moral beliefs: animal welfare, fairtrade, local produce, organic, Genetically Modified (GM) foods 

  • food choice linked to food intolerances (gluten and lactose) and the following allergies: nuts, egg, milk, wheat, fish and shell fish. 

When selecting some recipes students should explain
and justify their reasons for choice. 

Select, modify and make recipes for different religions, cultures and dietary groups. 

Food labelling and marketing influences 

How information about food available to the consumer, including labelling and marketing, influences food choice. 

  • mandatory information included on food packaging in accordance with current European Union and Food Standards Agency (FSA) legislation 

  • non-mandatory information: provenance, serving suggestions 

  • how to interpret nutritional labelling 

  • how food marketing can influence food choice eg buy one get one free, special offers, meal deals, media influences, advertising, point of sales marketing. 

 

British and international cuisines 

  • food products from British tradition and two different cuisines 

  • schools or colleges/students can select different cuisines to study. 

Cuisine is defined as: ‘a style characteristic of a particular country or region where
the cuisine has developed historically using distinctive ingredients, specific preparation and cooking methods or equipment, and presentation or serving techniques’. 

  • distinctive features and characteristics of cooking 

  • equipment and cooking methods used 

  • eating patterns 

  • presentation styles 

  • traditional and modern variations of recipes. 

Students should have the opportunity to prepare and cook recipes from a range of countries and cuisines, using different equipment and cooking methods. 

Skills demonstrated will be relevant to the task selected and demonstrate food preparation and cooking skills across groups (S1 to S12). 

Sensory evaluation 

  • sensory testing methods how taste receptors and olfactory systems work when tasting food. 

  • importance of senses when making food choices: sight, taste, touch and aroma 

  • preference tests: paired preference, hedonic 

  • discrimination tests: triangle 

  • grading tests: ranking, rating and pro ling 

  • how to set up a taste panel 

  • controlled conditions required for sensory testing 

  • evaluating how senses guide 

  • evaluating a wide range of ingredients and food from Britain and other countries 

  • how to test sensory qualities of a wide range of foods and combinations. 

General practical skills
– judge and manipulate sensory properties. How to taste and season during the cooking process. Change the taste and aroma through the use of infusions, herbs and spices, paste, jus and reduction (S1). 

Test sensory qualities of a wide range of foods. 

Evaluate and apply the results of sensory testing. 

 

5. Food provenance 

Environmental impact and sustainability of food 

Food Sources 

Where and how ingredients are grown, reared and caught. 

  • grown ingredients: fruits, vegetables and cereals 

  • reared ingredients: meat and poultry 

  • caught ingredients: fish 

  • an understanding of: 

  • organic and conventional farming 

  • free range production 

  • intensive farming 

  • sustainable fishing 

  • advantages and disadvantages of local produced foods, seasonal foods and Genetically Modified (GM) foods. 

 

Environmental issues associated with food. 

  • seasonal foods 

  • sustainability eg fish farming 

  • transportation 

  • organic foods 

  • the reasons for buying locally produced food 

  • food waste in the home/food production/retailers 

  • environment issues related to packaging 

  • carbon footprint. 

Consider the seasons when selecting ingredients for recipes using fruits and vegetables (S2 and S3). 

Using left over food to avoid wastage, whilst considering food waste. 

Sustainability of food 

  • the challenges to provide the world’s growing population with a sustainable, secure, supply of safe, nutritious and affordable high- quality food. 

Students must have an awareness of: 

  • climate change 

  • global warming 

  • sustainability of food sources 

  • insufficient land for growing food 

  • availability of food 

  • fairtrade 

  • problems of drought and flooding 

  • Genetically Modified (GM) foods 

  • food waste. 

 

Food processing and production 

Food production 

  • primary and secondary stages of processing and production 

  • how processing affects the sensory and nutritional properties of ingredients. 

  • primary processing related to the: rearing, fishing, growing, harvesting and cleaning of the raw food material (milling of wheat to our, heat treatment of milk, pasteurised, UHT, sterilised and micro- filtered milk) 

  • secondary processing related to: how the raw primary processed ingredients are processed to produce a food product (flour into bread and/ or pasta, milk into cheese and yoghurt, fruit into jams) 

  • loss of vitamins through heating and drying 

  • the effect of heating and drying on the sensory characteristics of milk. 

Make dough for pasta, shape and finish dough using a pasta machine, shape and finish pasta (S5 and S10). 

Water based cooking methods using the hob to boil the pasta (S6). 

Technological developments associated with better health and food production 

Technological developments to support better health and food production including fortification and modified foods with health benefits and the efficacy of these. 

  • cholesterol lowering spreads 

  • health benefits of fortification 

  • fortified foods: thiamin, niacin, calcium and iron added to white flour 

  • folic acid and iron added to breakfast cereals 

  • vitamins A and D added to fats and low fat spreads 

  • the positive and negative aspects of the use of additives: colourings, emulsifiers and stabilisers, flavourings, and preservatives 

  • the positive and negative aspects of Genetically Modified (GM) foods. 

To examine, carry out sensory analysis and evaluate existing products that have been modified and fortified. 

 

Food preparation and cooking techniques 

Food preparation and cooking techniques will be assessed through the non-exam assessment (NEA) element of the specification. 

Students should be taught to: 

  • consider the influence of lifestyle and consumer choice when developing meals and recipes 

  • consider nutritional needs and food choices when selecting recipes, including when making decisions about the ingredients, processes, cooking methods and portion sizes 

  • develop the ability to review and make improvements to recipes by amending them to include the most appropriate ingredients, processes, cooking methods and portion sizes 

  • manage the time and cost of recipes effectively 

  • use their testing and sensory evaluation skills, adjusting where needed, to improve the recipe during the preparation and cooking process 

  • explain, justify and present their ideas about their chosen cooking methods to others 

  • make decisions about which techniques are appropriate based on their understanding of nutrition, food, different culinary traditions and cooking and food preparation content in order to achieve their intended outcome. They should be able to carry out these techniques safely and combine them into appealing meals whilst evaluating the results.